2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis
This article documents a current event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. (January 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela has been underway since 10 January 2019, when the opposition-majority National Assembly declared that incumbent Nicolás Maduro's 2018 reelection was invalid and the body declared its president, Juan Guaidó, to be acting president of the nation.
The process and results of the May 2018 Venezuelan presidential election were widely disputed. The National Assembly declared Maduro illegitimate on the day of his second inauguration, citing the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela enacted under Hugo Chávez, Maduro's predecessor; in response, the pro-Maduro Supreme Tribunal of Justice said the National Assembly's declaration was unconstitutional.
Mass demonstrations throughout Venezuela and the world occurred on 23 January when Guaidó called for Venezuelans to protest against Maduro. Demonstrations in support of Maduro and Chavismo took place as well. Special meetings in the Organization of American States (OAS) on 24 January and in the United Nations Security Council on 26 January were held but no consensus was reached. Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres called for dialogue.
Maduro's government says the crisis is a coup d'état led by the United States to topple him and control the country's oil reserves. Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement.
- 1 Background
- 2 Events
- 2.1 Inauguration of Maduro
- 2.2 Public assembly
- 2.3 National Assembly declares Guaidó interim president
- 2.4 Detention of Guaidó and rebellion within the National Guard
- 2.5 Guaidó sworn in as interim president
- 2.6 Maduro's response
- 2.7 Threats and intimidation
- 2.8 Diplomatic support and appointments
- 2.9 Bank of England and overseas assets
- 2.10 Military and other defections
- 2.11 Military intervention
- 2.12 Humanitarian aid
- 3 Censorship and media control
- 4 Recognition
- 4.1 Guaidó interim presidency
- 4.2 Support of National Assembly
- 4.3 Maduro presidency
- 4.4 Vocal neutrality
- 5 Reactions
- 6 Public opinion
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
Since 2010, Venezuela has been suffering a socioeconomic crisis under Nicolás Maduro (and briefly under his predecessor, Hugo Chávez), as rampant crime, hyperinflation and shortages diminish the quality of life. As a result of discontent with the government, the opposition was elected to hold the majority in the National Assembly for the first time since 1999 following the 2015 parliamentary election. After the election, the lame duck National Assembly—consisting of Bolivarian officials—filled the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, the highest court in Venezuela, with Maduro allies. The tribunal stripped three opposition lawmakers of their National Assembly seats in early 2016, citing alleged "irregularities" in their elections, thereby preventing an opposition supermajority which would have been able to challenge President Maduro.
The tribunal approved several actions by Maduro and granted him more powers in 2017. As protests mounted against Maduro, he called for a constituent assembly that would draft a new constitution to replace the 1999 Venezuela Constitution created under Chávez. Many countries considered these actions a bid by Maduro to stay in power indefinitely, and over 40 countries stated that they would not recognize the National Constituent Assembly. The Democratic Unity Roundtable—the opposition to the incumbent ruling party—boycotted the election, saying that the Constituent Assembly was "a trick to keep [the incumbent ruling party] in power". Since the opposition did not participate in the election, the incumbent Great Patriotic Pole, dominated by the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, won almost all seats in the assembly by default. On 8 August 2017, the Constituent Assembly declared itself to be the government branch with supreme power in Venezuela, banning the opposition-led National Assembly from performing actions that would interfere with the assembly while continuing to pass measures in "support and solidarity" with President Maduro, effectively stripping the National Assembly of all its powers.
Maduro disavowed the National Assembly in 2017; as of 2018, some considered the National Assembly the only "legitimate" institution left in the country,[a] and human rights organizations said there were no independent institutional checks on presidential power.[b]
2018 election and calls for transitional government
In February 2018, Maduro called for presidential elections four months before the prescribed date. He was declared the winner in May 2018 after multiple major opposition parties were banned from participating, among other irregularities; many said the elections were invalid. Politicians both internally and internationally said Maduro was not legitimately elected, and considered him an ineffective dictator. In the months leading up to his 10 January 2019 inauguration, Maduro was pressured to step down by nations and bodies including the Lima Group (excluding Mexico), the United States, and the OAS; this pressure was increased after the new National Assembly of Venezuela was sworn in on 5 January 2019.
Between the May 2018 presidential election and Maduro's inauguration, there were calls to establish a transitional government. CEO of Venezuela Al Día, Manuel Corao, argued that Maduro was no longer the president and that "the tendencies in Venezuela represented in the National Assembly [wish to] designate a transitional government that fills the vacuum of power and liberates Venezuelans from Communist evil". Former Venezuelan legislator Alexis Ortiz stated that "Castrochavism [...] rots in incompetence, corruption, and surrender of national sovereignty", calling on a transitional government to work on reconciliation, establish general elections, receive humanitarian assistance and protect civil liberties, among other requests.
A November 2018 report by the International Crisis Group said that "[n]eighboring countries and other foreign powers have taken steps–including sanction–to achieve some kind of negotiated transition, which is still the best way out of the crisis".
Justification for the challenge
The Venezuelan opposition bases its actions on the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution, specifically Articles 233, 333 and 350. The first paragraph of Article 233 states: "The President of the Republic shall become permanently unavailable to serve by reason of any of the following events: death; resignation; removal from office by decision of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice; permanent physical or mental disability; ... abandonment of his position, duly declared by the National Assembly; and recall by popular vote."
Later paragraphs describe what to do in the event of a vacancy due to "permanent unavailability to serve", depending on when the vacancy occurs:
- Prior to elected President's inauguration, "a new election ... shall be held within thirty consecutive days ... The President of the National Assembly shall take charge of the Presidency of the Republic".
- During the first four years of President's six-year term, "a new election ... shall be held within thirty consecutive days ... The Executive Vice-President shall take charge of the Presidency of the Republic".
- During the last two years of President's six-year term, "the Executive Vice-President shall take over the Presidency of the Republic until such term is completed".
Article 233 was invoked after death of Hugo Chávez, which took place soon after his inauguration, and extraordinary elections were called within thirty days. In 2019, the National Assembly invoked Article 233 due to abandonment of [President's] position, arguing that "de facto dictatorship" means no democratic leader. Invoked by the National Assembly, Guaidó was declared interim president for thirty days until elections could be held; Diego A. Zambrano, an assistant professor of law at Stanford Law School, says that "Venezuelan lawyers disagree on the best reading of this provision. Some argue Guaidó can serve longer if the electoral process is scheduled within a reasonable time". The National Assembly announced that it will designate a committee to appoint a new National Electoral Council, in anticipation of free elections.
Article 333 calls for citizens to restore and enforce the Constitution if it is not followed. Article 350 calls for citizens to "disown any regime, legislation or authority that violates democratic values". The National Assembly argues that both the national and international community must unite behind a transitional government that will guarantee humanitarian aid, bring the restoration of Venezuela's rule of law, and will hold democratic elections.
The National Assembly and the opposition have mantained a three-step position and a strategy through the crisis to restore democracy in the country:
Inauguration of Maduro
Signs of impending crisis showed when a Supreme Court Justice and Electoral Justice seen as close to Maduro defected to the United States just a few days before the 10 January 2019 second inauguration of Nicolás Maduro. The justice, Christian Zerpa, said that Nicolás Maduro was "incompetent" and "illegitimate". Minutes after Maduro took the oath as president of Venezuela, the Organization of American States approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council declaring Maduro's presidency illegitimate and urging new elections. Maduro's election was supported by Turkey, Russia, China, and the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA); other small Caribbean nations reliant on economic assistance from the Maduro government (such as Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago) attended his inauguration.
At the time of the inauguration, The Times reported that US intelligence had allegedly learned that Minister of Defense, Vladimir Padrino López, had requested that Maduro step down, threatening to resign if Maduro did not. On 15 January 2019, Padrino López swore loyalty to Maduro, stating that members of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces of Venezuela (FANB) "are willing to die to defend that Constitution, those people, those institutions and you as supreme magistrate, president of Venezuela".
Maduro's government stated that the positions against him were the "result of imperialism perpetrated by the United States and allies" that put Venezuela "at the centre of a world war".
Juan Guaidó, the newly appointed President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, began motions to form a provisional government shortly after assuming his new role on 5 January 2019, stating that regardless if Maduro began his new term on the 10th, the country would not have a legitimately elected president. On behalf of the National Assembly, he stated that the country had fallen into a de facto dictatorship and had no leader, declaring that the nation faced a state of emergency. He called for "soldiers who wear their uniforms with honor to step forward and enforce the Constitution", and asked "citizens for confidence, strength, and to accompany us on this path".
Guaidó announced a public assembly, referred to as an open cabildo, on 11 January—a rally in the streets of Caracas, where the National Assembly announced that Guaidó was assuming the role of the acting president under the Constitution of Venezuela and announcing plans to remove President Maduro. Leaders of other political parties, trade unions, women, and the students of Venezuela were given a voice at the rally; other parties did not speak of a divide, but of what they saw as a failed Bolivarian Revolution that needed to end.
Maduro's response was to call the opposition a group of "little boys", describing Guaidó as "immature". The Minister for Prison Services, Iris Varela, threatened that she had picked out a prison cell for Guaidó and asked him to be quick in naming his cabinet so she could prepare prison cells for them as well.
National Assembly declares Guaidó interim president
Following Guaidó's speech, the National Assembly released a press statement saying that Guaidó had assumed the role of acting president. A later statement clarified the position of Guaidó as "willing to assume command ... only possible with the help of Venezuelans". The opposition did not consider this a coup d'état based on the acknowledged "illegitimacy" of Maduro by many governments, and the constitutional processes that the National Assembly said they were following, specifically invoking Articles 233, 333, and 350 of the Constitution. The president of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Venezuela in exile (based in Panama), wrote Guaidó, requesting him to become acting president of Venezuela.
On 15 January 2019, the National Assembly approved legislation to work with dozens of foreign countries to request that these nations freeze Maduro administration bank accounts. Guaidó wrote a 15 January 2019 opinion piece in The Washington Post entitled "Maduro is a usurper. It’s time to restore democracy in Venezuela"; he outlined Venezuela's erosion of democracy and his reasoning for the need to replace Maduro on an interim basis according to Venezuela's constitution.
Guaidó announced nationwide protests to be held on 23 January—the same day as the removal of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958—using a slogan chant of ¡Sí, se puede!. The National Assembly worked with a coalition (Frente Amplio Venezuela Libre) to create a plan for the demonstrations, organizing a unified national force. On 11 January, plans to offer incentives for the armed forces to disavow Maduro were revealed. Venezuelan political experts, like David Smilde from the Washington Office on Latin America, suggested that this action would enrage Maduro, who already called the National Assembly traitors for not attending his inauguration, and who might arrest or attack more of its members. A friend of Guaidó, in response, said that they were aware of the risks but believed it needed to be done to allow democracy to reappear in Venezuela.
Luis Almagro (Secretary-General of the OAS) was the first to give official support to this action, tweeting "We welcome the assumption of Juan Guaidó as interim President of Venezuela in accordance with Article 233 of the Political Constitution. You have our support, that of the international community and of the people of Venezuela." Later on that day, Brazil and Colombia gave their support to Guaidó as acting president of Venezuela.
Detention of Guaidó and rebellion within the National Guard
Guaidó was detained on 13 January by the Bolivarian Intelligence Service (SEBIN) and released 45 minutes later. The SEBIN agents who intercepted his car and took him into custody were fired. The Information Minister, Jorge Rodríguez, said the agents did not have instructions and the arrest was orchestrated by Guaidó as a "media stunt" to gain popularity; BBC News correspondents said that it appeared to be a genuine ambush to send a message to the opposition. Almagro condemned the arrest, which he called a "kidnapping", while Mike Pompeo, United States Secretary of State, referred to it as an "arbitrary detention".
After his detention, Guaidó said that Rodríguez's admission that the SEBIN agents acted independently showed that the government had lost control of its security forces; he called Miraflores (the presidential house and office) "desperate". In a later announcement, he declared himself acting president, his most direct claim to the position.
In early 2019, a group of Venezuelan ex-army and police officers in Peru announced support for Guaidó, disclaiming Maduro. Multiple groups of similarly retired or displaced soldiers said that they would return to fight Maduro if needed. It was also reported that though the top military swore allegiance to Maduro, many had spoken to exiled and defected soldiers to express their wish to not suppress any uprising that could oust Maduro, secretly supporting Guaidó. The National Assembly offered amnesty for military defectors.
Early on 21 January, at least 27 soldiers of the Venezuelan National Guard stationed near Miraflores Palace mutinied against Maduro. The Guardian reported that they kidnapped four security staff and stole weaponry from a post in Petare, and posted videos on social media promising the military would fight against the government. Rioting and arson took place in the area and tear gas was used on civilian protestors. After overnight fighting, the soldiers were taken by authorities. Five were injured and one person died in the mutiny: a civilian woman who was confused for a protester was killed by members of a colectivo. The BBC compared the mutiny to the El Junquito raid a year earlier, which resulted in the death of rebel leader Óscar Pérez.
Guaidó sworn in as interim president
On 23 January, Guaidó swore to serve as Interim President. Smaller protests had been building prior to that day. On that morning, Guaidó tweeted, "The world's eyes are on our homeland today." On that day, millions of Venezuelans demonstrated across the country and world in support of Guaidó, described as "a river of humanity", with a few hundred supporting Maduro outside Miraflores.
The opposition march was planned for a 10:00 a.m. start, but was delayed for 30 minutes due to rain. At one end of the blocked street was a stage where Guaidó spoke and took an oath to serve as interim president, swearing himself in.
Before the protest began, the Venezuelan National Guard used tear gas on gathering crowds at other locations. Another area of the capital was blocked off at Plaza Venezuela, a large main square, with armored vehicles and riot police on hand before protestors arrived. Photographic reports showed that some protests grew violent, resulting in injuries to both protesters and security. By the end of the day, at least 13 people were killed. Michelle Bachelet of the United Nations expressed concern that so many had been killed and requested a UN investigation into the security forces' use of violence.
|Satellite images of a Guaidó rally on 2 February 2019, 11:05 AM VET|
|Satellite images of a Maduro rally on 2 February 2019, 11:05 AM VET|
A defiant Maduro accused the US of backing a coup, and said he would cut ties with them. He said Guaidó's actions were part of a "well-written script from Washington" to create a puppet state of the United States. In December 2018, Guaidó had traveled to Washington D.C. and met with OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro, and then on 14 January 2019 to Colombia for a Lima Group meeting, in which Maduro's mandate was rejected. According to an article in El Pais, the January Lima Group meeting and the stance taken by Canada's Chrystia Freeland were key. El Pais describes Trump's election—coinciding with the election of conservative presidents in Colombia and Brazil, along with deteriorating conditions in Venezuela—as "a perfect storm", with decisions influenced by US vice-president Mike Pence, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, National Security advisor John R. Bolton, and legislators Mario Díaz-Balart and Marco Rubio. Venezuelans Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges and Gustavo Tarre were consulted, and the Trump administration decision to back Guaidó formed on 22 January, according to El Pais. Díaz-Balart said that the decision was the result of two years of planning; soon after taking office, Trump had met with Lilian Tintori, Pence and Rubio. Bolton spoke in November 2018 of Havana, Caracas and Managua as a triangle of terror (troika of tyranny); Borges included Bolivia as fourth to Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua.
Maduro asked for dialogue with Guaidó, saying "if I have to go meet this boy in the Pico Humboldt at three in the morning I am going, [...] if I have to go naked, I am going, [I believe] that today, sooner rather than later, the way is open for a reasonable, sincere dialogue". He stated he would not leave the presidential office, saying that he was elected in compliance with the Venezuelan constitution. He denounced the accusations against him as "US imperialism" and compared the alleged foreign interference to colonialism. He called Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro a Hitler of the modern era. He also sent a video appeal to the American people asking them not to convert Venezuela into another Vietnam. Guaidó asked for support from the military, and warned that the people protesting would never get tired. During the speech, Guaidó also replied to Maduro's call for dialogue, saying he would not initiate diplomatic talks with Maduro because he believed it would be a farce and fake diplomacy that couldn't achieve anything. Maduro has claimed one of the reasons the US is involved, is because they want to get access to Venezuelas oil.
Bolton stated "I think we're trying to get to the same end result here. … It will make a big difference to the United States economically if we could have American oil companies really invest in and produce the oil capabilities in Venezuela."
Threats and intimidation
Guaidó presented his socioeconomic project Plan País on 31 January at the Central University of Venezuela. The plan encompasses providing government subsidies to the most vulnerable populations in Venezuela, restoring experienced personnel—removed by former President Hugo Chávez—to PDVSA, and improving foreign investment. As the presentation concluded, Guaidó rushed back to his home after being informed that security forces were outside his residence while his wife and child were there. Neighbors stated that individuals dressed in black were seen near his home and gathered outside of Guaidó's home to support him. The Bolivarian National Police denied that authorities were present in the area.
According to Colombia's Caracol Televisión, Maduro said Guaidó was a clown with a "virtual mandate" who could be imprisoned. During a speech given during the start of the judicial year in the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, Maduro "joked" saying "I was thinking about sending my assistant to the self-proclaimed to end his life."; seconds later Maduro pointed out that "it was a joke" and that "they don't know what humor is." Diosdado Cabello—described by Urgente 24 News as the "president of the illegitimate 2017 Constituent National Assembly" and number two in command [of the country]—made another threat against Guaidó on 5 February in a public, videotaped discussion before the Constituent Assembly. Cabello said that Guaidó had "never heard the whistle of a nearby bullet, you don't know what it feels like when a bullet hits three centimeters from you". Cabello also was reported to have asked Guaidó how far he was willing to go, because they were willing, saying that "We will not care about anything." Guaidó's response was, "Caracas is the most violent capital in the world ... we have had political assassinations ... they have killed more than 40 children. Venezuelans have had to listen already to too many whistling bullets produced by a regime that does not care about the lives, the welfare of Venezuelans ... who need medicine and food ... you will not stop us with veiled threats."
Diplomatic support and appointments
Following the 23 January events, some Venezuelan diplomats in the United States supported Guaidó; the majority returned to Venezuela on Maduro's orders. Venezuela's ambassador in Iraq, Jonathan Velasco, recognized Guaidó, indicating that the National Assembly is the only government branch "associated with ethics, legitimacy and legality" and responsible for filling the "power vacuum created by the violation of the constitution". The Consul general of Venezuela in Houston recognized Guaidó, saying "I am at your service and at your disposal to serve my country." Although consular officers destroyed thousand of documents from the ambassador's office and both the administration and consular section, nine officials decided to stay.
The top Venezuelan consular officer in Miami supported Guaidó, stating "it [follows] my democratic principles and values" and urging other diplomats to "embrace the Constitution" and join Guaidó in trying to force new elections. Two consular officials in Chicago recognized Guaidó, saying they wanted to be "associated with democratic principles and values".
Carlos Vecchio was accredited by Pompeo as the Guaidó administration's diplomatic envoy to the US. Gustavo Tarre was named Venezuela's Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States, and Julio Borges was named to represent Venezuela in the Lima Group. The National Assembly made more than a dozen other diplomatic appointments, including Elisa Trotta Gamus to Argentina, María Teresa Belandria to Brazil, and Humberto Calderón Berti to Colombia.
Bank of England and overseas assets
In mid-December, Calixto Ortega, the president of Venezuela’s central bank, led a delegation to London to arrange for the Bank of England to return the $1.2 billion in gold bullion that Venezuela stores at the bank. The bank declined the request possibly due to a request from U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo and National Security Adviser John Bolton who wanted to cut off the Maduro government from its overseas assets. In an interview with the BBC, Maduro asked Britain to return the gold reserves deposited in London instead of sending humanitarian aid. He said that the gold was "legally Venezuela's, it belongs to the Central Bank of Venezuela" and could be used to solve the country's problems. However, Guaidó has asked the British government to ensure that the Bank of England does not provide the gold to the Maduro government. Maduro also said that US sanctions have frozen $10 billion in Venezuelan overseas accounts. The US has said it will give Guaidó control of those assets once Maduro has been removed from power.
Military and other defections
The Miami Herald reported that the Maduro regime feared a military uprising and defections, had made many arrests, and Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino López ordered a counterintelligence effort to locate conspiracists or possible defectors. According to France 24, Maduro said "military deserters who fled to Colombia have become mercenaries" as part of a US-backed coup. CBS News said that rank-and-file troops, who made about US$6 per month, were hungry and pushed to a tipping point.
Guaidó said that the opposition had held secret meetings with military officials to discuss the Amnesty Law. An opposition representative said that the meetings were focused on army officers, who were amenable to the idea and "expressed concern about the Trump administration's past threats of military intervention in Venezuela and [...] that the armed forces would be outgunned in any fight". Analysts warned that the meetings could potentially only win partial support and divide the military, which could lead to a civil war or coup.
In February, the Venezuelan Air Force's head of strategic planning, divisional general Francisco Esteban Yánez Rodríguez, recognized Guaidó as interim president on 2 February 2019, stating: "Today, with patriotic and democratic pride, I inform you that I do not recognize the irritating and dictatorial authority of Mr. Nicolás Maduro and I recognize Deputy Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela, for which I worthily place myself at your service". He said that 90% of the armed forces would back Guaidó if needed. Air Force general Víctor Romero Meléndez supported Guaidó and called upon the Armed Forces to "support the people and the constitution". Retired air force major general Jorge Oropeza recognized Guaidó as interim president, as did lieutenant colonel Andrés Eloy Volcán. During an opposition protest in Barquisimeto, Lara state, officers of the Bolivarian National Police withdrew after they were asked by protesters to leave. One of the policemen said "I prefer to withdraw my men than to repress the people." In San Cristóbal, Táchira state, National Guardsmen withdrew from a protest meeting point to allow the installation of a scaffold. The next day, the police chief of Valera, Trujillo state, Raúl Eliezer Álvarez, and five other officers disavowed Maduro's government as a "narcodictator regime". Carlos Guyon Celis, a former captain who participated in the first 1992 coup d'état attempt, expressed support for Juan Guaidó on the anniversary of the 4 February coup attempt, and called upon the Armed Forces to "cut the chains that oppress the people since 20 years". Venepress published an alleged audio of an aviation officer who said that the Armed Forces are weakened and that officers would not defend Maduro. The top Venezuelan military representative to the United States, Colonel José Luis Silva, recognized Guaidó as his president.
In early 2019, with Cuban and Russian-backed security forces in the country, potential United States military involvement was reported. According to professor Erick Langer of Georgetown University, "Cuba and Russia have already intervened".
Reuters reported that Russian mercenaries associated with the Wagner Group were in Venezuela to defend Maduro's government. Professor Robert Ellis of the United States Army War College described 400 Wagner Group mercenaries provided by Russia as the "palace guard of Nicolás Maduro". Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov denied the deployment of Russian mercenaries, calling it "fake news". A Cuban military presence of at least 15,000 personnel was in Venezuela in early 2018, while estimates ranging from hundreds to thousands of Cuban security forces were reported in 2019. Colombian guerrillas from National Liberation Army (ELN) have also vowed to defend Maduro, with ELN leaders in Cuba stating that they are drafting plans to provide military assistance to Maduro. The Redes Foundation denounced in the Colombian Public Ministry that armed groups made up of National Liberation Army members and FARC dissidents, supported by the Bolivarian National Police and FAES officials, murdered two Venezuelans, Eduardo José Marrero and Luigi Ángel Guerrero, during a protest in the frontier city of San Cristóbal, on Táchira state. Other protesters were injured during the shooting.
According to Michael Shifter, president of the Inter-American Dialogue think tank, "a military action of the United States against Venezuela would be contrary to the movements of the Trump administration to retire troops from Syria or Afghanistan." John Bolton has declared that "all options are on the table", but has also said that "our objective is a peaceful transfer of power".
Maduro announced that state funds would be used to purchase new military equipment, saying "we are going to make enough investment so that Venezuela has all the anti-aircraft and anti-missile defense systems ... even the most modern in the world, Venezuela will have them because Venezuela wants peace".
According to France 24, Guaidó has made bringing humanitarian aid to the "hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans who could die if aid does not arrive" a priority, and a test of the military's allegiance. The day after assuming the interim presidency, Guaidó requested humanitarian aid for Venezuela from the US, and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo pledged to offer $20 million. He also requested aid from the United Nations, which was denied because the UN says the request must come from Maduro.
Guaidó said Venezuela's neighbors, in a "global coalition to send aid to Venezuela", will help get humanitarian aid and medicine into the country; products will be shipped to neighboring ports and brought overland via convoys. He called it a test of the military: "In a few weeks they will have to choose if they let much needed aid into the country, or if they side with Nicolas Maduro." The US pledged $20 million, and Canada pledged $53 million Canadian dollars in humanitarian aid, saying most of it would go to Venezuela's neighbors and trusted partners. Germany, Sweden, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Puerto Rico, and the European Commission have also pledged aid.
Guaidó stated that the Maduro administration had plans to "steal the products for humanitarian purposes that entered the country". This included plans to distribute these products through the government's food distribution program CLAP—a program from which, according to the 2017 Venezuelan Attorney General, Maduro profits.[c]
Maduro is determined to prevent aid from entering, calling it a "precursor to a US-led invasion". Shortly after the announcement that international humanitarian aid would enter via the Colombia–Venezuela border, PSUV politician and former elite policeman Freddy Bernal appeared at the border with members of the armed forces and the FAES. Miguel Pizarro warned the military not to cross a red line and deny entry to humanitarian aid. The Tienditas Bridge on the Colombia–Venezuela border was blocked by the Venezuelan National Guard, using shipping containers and tanker truck; the completed bridge has not been officially used since it was constructed in 2016 due to the Venezuela–Colombia migrant crisis. Diosdado Cabello threatened that any planes that tried to bring aid into the country would be shot down. Maduro denied that Venezuela needs aid, saying "We are not beggars". As the first trucks with aid, escorted by Colombian police, approached the blocked bridge on 7 February, human rights activists received them, and Venezuela's communications minister, Jorge Rodriguez said there was a plot between Colombia, the CIA and exiled Venezuelan politician Julio Borges to oust Maduro. During a speech on 8 February, Maduro voiced his opinions on why he had denied international aid and after stating "With humanitarian aid they want to treat us like beggars ... in Venezuela we have the capacity to take care of our children and women. There is no humanitarian crisis here".
The United Nations has stated that "[v]ast numbers of Venezuelans are starving, deprived of essential medicines, and trying to survive in a situation that is spiraling downwards with no end in sight". It has recommended increased humanitarian funding for Venezuelans and cautioned not to politicize the aid. The UN said that "humanitarian action needs to be independent of political, military or other objectives". The International Committee of the Red Cross "warned the United States about the risks of delivering humanitarian aid to Venezuela without the approval of security forces loyal to President Nicolas Maduro". It also said its ability to work in the current environment in Venezuela was limited". Having worked with local authorities inside Venezuela for a long time delivering relief, in February 2019 the organization had talks with the Venezuelan Ministry of Health about increasing its budget. Later in the month it doubled its Venezuela budget to 15.8 million euros (US$17.9 million). Carlos Holmes Trujillo, Colombia's foreign minister, said that blocking aid was a crime that "would give even more reason ... to ask the International Criminal Court to investigate Maduro". While Guaidó attempted to secure international aid, Maduro shipped over 100 tons of aid to Cuba following a tornado that devastated Havana. Carlos Vecchio, designated by the National Assembly as Venezuela's ambassador to the US, announced a conference to coordinate humanitarian aid to Venezuela, to be held on 14 February 2019 at the OAS headquarters in Washington, DC.
During an 11 February BBC interview, Maduro said, "[t]he Ku Klux Klan that governs the White House today wants to seize Venezuela" and that "Venezuela is not a country of famine. It has very high levels of nutrients and access to food." Guaidó issued an 11-day ultimatum to the Venezuelan Armed Forces on 12 February, stating that humanitarian aid will enter Venezuela on 23 February and that the armed forces "will have to decide if it will be on the side of the Venezuelans and the Constitution or the usurper".
On 13 February, Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez warned its citizens that humanitarian aid provided by the US was considered "carcinogenic" and part of a plot to kill them. She also claimed that "this so-called food from the United States aims to poison our population with chemicals" and described it as "biological weapons". Deputy and medic José Manuel Olivares dismissed her claims, clarifying that "the aid has quality control and sanitary registry of Colombia, Brazil and the United States." Delcy's remarks were also dismissed by the United States, saying that the Maduro government "would go to any length to lie and deny reality".
At the 14 February Conference on Humanitarian Assistance in Support of Venezuela hosted by the OAS in Washington, D.C., John Bolton announced that 25 countries pledged US$100 million for humanitarian aid to be delivered to Venezuela via centers in Curacao, Colombia and Brazil.
British philanthropist Richard Branson will produce a concert in Cúcuta, Colombia on 22 February, Venezuela Aid Live, to raise money and support for aid to enter Venezuela. The Maduro government responded by holding its own concert called "Hands off Venezuela" at the Simón Bolívar International Bridge on 22 and 23 February. According to Information Minister Jorge Rodríguez, the government will also distribute 20,000 boxes of subsidized food from the Local Committees for Supply and Production (CLAP) to the poor residents of Cúcuta.
Censorship and media control
Several sources reported that starting 11 January 2019, internet access to Wikipedia (in all languages) was blocked in Venezuela after Guaidó's page on the Spanish Wikipedia was edited to show him as president. The block mainly affected the users of the state-run CANTV, the national telecommunications company and largest provider of the country. Several media outlets have suggested that Wikipedia directly or indirectly was taking sides with either group.
Later on 21 January, the day of a National Guard mutiny in Cotiza, internet access to some social media like Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube was reported blocked for CANTV users. The Venezuelan government denied it had engaged in blocking. In the late evening of 22 January, it was reported that Twitter and Instagram were completely blocked in the country, possibly to suppress the organization of the protests happening the next day.
During 23 January protests, widespread internet outages for CANTV users were reported, with Wikipedia, Google Search, Facebook, Instagram, and many other social media platforms affected. The widespread regional internet blackouts occurred again on 26 to 27 January.
Several live streams of the National Assembly sessions and Guaidó's speeches have been disrupted for CANTV users, mainly affecting access to streaming platforms like Periscope, YouTube, and other Google services.
Canal 24 Horas, a news channel owned by Chile's public broadcaster, Televisión Nacional, was removed from Venezuela's cable and satellite television operators by the state-run National Commission of Telecommunications (Conatel) on 24 January.
Since 22 January, Conatel has repeatedly advised against the promotion of violence and the disavowing of institutional authorities, according to the Law on Social Responsibility on Radio and Television imposed in 2004. Some radio programs have been ordered off air, including Cesar Miguel Rondón's radio program, one of the most listened-to programs in the country. Other programs have been temporarily canceled or received censorship warnings, including a threat to close private television and radio stations if they recognize Guaidó as acting president or interim president of Venezuela.
Arrests of press personnel
Between 29 and 30 January, at least eleven press personnel were arrested. On the evening of 29 January, four journalists were arrested by the Maduro government while reporting near the Miraflores presidential palace—Venezuelan journalists Ana Rodríguez of VPI TV and Maiker Yriarte of TV Venezuela, and Chilean journalists Rodrigo Pérez and Gonzalo Barahona of TVN Chile. The two Venezuelan journalists were released; the Chilean journalists were deported.
Two French journalists from French TV show, Quotidien, and their Venezuelan producer were detained for two days at El Helicoide on 30 January. Three press workers of EFE were also arrested by SEBIN and DGCIM—a Colombian photographer, a Colombian companion, and a Spanish companion.
Jorge Arreaza, Venezuelan Minister for Foreign Affairs, defended the detentions, stating that press workers were part "of the media operation against the country" that wanted "to create a media scandal" by not "complying with the minimum prerequisites required by Venezuelan law". Press organizations stated that they complied with the migration laws of Venezuela. Maduro denied that journalists were detained by authorities.
The website "Voluntarios X Venezuela" was promoted by Guaidó and the National Assembly to gather volunteers for humanitarian aid; as of 16 February, Guaidó said 600,000 people had signed up. Between 12 and 13 February, CANTV users that tried to access were redirected to a mirror site with a different URL address. The mirror site asked for personal information: names, ID, address and telephone numbers. The fake site also hosted other phishing websites with the aim of obtaining email addresses, usernames and passwords. All the phishing websites used the .ve domain controlled by Conatel. This manipulation was denounced as a technique to identify dissidents to the government. Following the phishing incident, the official site was completely blocked for CANTV users on 16 February.
Guaidó interim presidency
- Costa Rica
- Czech Republic
- Dominican Republic
- Marshall Islands
- North Macedonia
- United Kingdom
- United States
Support of National Assembly
- El Salvador[f]
- Equatorial Guinea
- North Korea
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- South Africa
Several nations called specifically for non-intervention and, without supporting either side, asked for diplomatic discussions to be held to move forward.
On 15 January, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau called Maduro "an illegitimate dictator", with United States National Security Adviser John R. Bolton and Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro also using the same term.
International demonstrations occurred on both sides, with massive gatherings in more than 70 cities worldwide supporting Guaidó, and others supporting Maduro.
An open letter by over 70 scholars, including Noam Chomsky and John Pilger, demanded the United States "cease interfering in Venezuela’s internal politics, especially for the purpose of overthrowing the country’s government".
Mexico and Uruguay announced an international conference for countries with a neutral position in Montevideo on 7 February. Uruguay has since recognized Maduro as president, with foreign minister Rodolfo Nin Novoa comparing the worsening situation to the United States' rationale for the Iraq War.
China: China was originally forthcoming with support to Maduro with Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Hua Chunying stating that China "supports efforts made by the Venezuelan government to protect the country’s sovereignty, independence, and stability" and "opposes foreign forces from interfering into Venezuela affairs". It has recently taken a more neutral position for fear of alienating potential relationships in major South America countries which support of Guaidó, as well as due to frustration with Venezuela's inability to repay debt, China having lended Venezuela $67B USD. Geng Shuang, a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman, stated that China's trade deals would not be affected “no matter how circumstances change," and further stated that China has been in talks with "all sides". There also has been evidence of discontent in China's public over the amounts of money that have been given to Venezuela, which some state would be better used in China. According to the Wall Street Journal, China has been holding meetings with diplomats from the government of Guaidó to discuss Chinese investments in Venezuela; a Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman denied these claims, stating that it is "false information".
Russia: Russia has been a vocal supporter of Nicolas Maduro, as well as being a military and economic ally. Russia has made shows of force, such as flying two Tu-160 nuclear capable bombers to Venezuela. In addition to direct support Russia also acts vocal supporter of Maduro in the UN, and has been one of the country's principal arms dealers. Domestic reactions in Russia to the situation have been mixed with some publications praising Russia's support of Maduro and its willingness to confront the US, and others criticizing economic aid to Venezuela which they deem an economic black hole. The Russian National Oil Company Rosneft has invested heavily in numerous joint ventures with Venezuela's state-run oil company, PDVSA. Rosneft has made direct investments in six Venezuelan oil fields totaling around $2.5B USD. Rosneft has also acted as a major lender, and oil marketer for Venezuela aiding it in selling 225,000 barrels per day in crude supplies overseas. It has made large loans to the company with $2.7B USD outstanding; to offset risk PDVSA has pledged a 49.9% stake of subsidiary Citgo as collateral for loans outstanding.
United States (US): On 15 January, US President Donald Trump was reported to be deliberating whether to officially recognize Guaidó, which he did on 23 January. US Vice President Mike Pence released a video on 23 January in support of Guaidó and the people of Venezuela. The US was the first nation to recognize Guaidó after he swore an oath on the 23rd, with Trump and Pence sending their support and solidarity as well as the official recognition; other countries followed suit. In response Maduro ordered the expulsion of US diplomats, giving them 72 hours to leave Venezuela. The US said it would not close its embassy, stating their diplomatic relationship was with Guaidó's government, and holding Maduro responsible for the safety of its staff. On 26 January 2019, only hours before the deadline, the Maduro government backtracked on its expulsion order, giving US diplomats another 30 days. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo appointed Elliott Abrams as US Special Envoy to Venezuela. On 28 January, the US imposed sanctions on PDVSA. The US accounted for 41% of purchases from the company, which is the biggest input to Venezuela's economy.
Vatican City: Corriere della Sera cited a leaked copy of a private letter reportedly sent by Pope Francis to Maduro on 7 February 2019 in reply to a letter Maduro wrote asking the pope to mediate. Pope Francis' response—addressed to "His Excellency Mr Nicolás Maduro Moros"—said that what had been agreed in earlier negotiations had not been followed. Those conditions, still applicable, were: open a channel for humanitarian aid, hold free elections, free political prisoners, and re-establish the constitutionally-elected National Assembly. According to Andrea Gagliarducci, writing for the Catholic News Agency, in not addressing Maduro as president, the Pope was agreeing with the stance taken by the Venezuelan bishops, who hold that Maduro's election was illegitimate.
United Nations: A special meeting of the Security Council was held on 26 January to discuss Venezuela; no consensus was reached. Secretary General António Guterres called for dialogue to ease tensions. Delegates from Maduro's government continued to represent Venezuela at the United Nations. On 14 February 2019, a group of UN delegates, including delegates of China, Russia and Venezuela itself, declared they would fight what they called the "illicit, American-led effort" to change the government of Venezuela. They accused the US of "using sanctions and emergency aid as political weapons against Venezuelans".
European Union (EU): More than half of its member states, including the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain, said they support Guaidó; earlier, the EU issued a declaration saying it "fully supports the National Assembly as the democratically elected institution whose powers need to be restored and respected". On 4 February, 19 countries of the European Union made a joint declaration supporting and recognizing Juan Guaidó as interim president of Venezuela, asking that he "summons free, just and democratic presidential elections". Italy's stance prevented this from becoming an official EU position.
Lima Group: On 11 and 12 January, several nations of the Lima Group released statements independent from the international body, including their nations' agreement to not recognize Maduro. The Maduro government claimed that these countries had "rectified" themselves to support him as president. They had not; the non-intervention statements were seen as a concession to prevent rash action by Maduro after he broadly threatened the group. Venezuelan Foreign Minister, Jorge Arreaza, gave a different statement to the vice presidential office, saying that Venezuela had received diplomatic notices from some Lima Group countries about the original dispute. Colombia's statement reiterated the group's resolution and pledged to support "the restoration of democracy and constitutional order in Venezuela", as well as saying that they did not have a position on the territorial dispute. Arreaza contradicted the statement from his vice president's office that the Lima Group recognized Maduro's government, and doubled Maduro's 48-hour demand period for non-intervention for the remaining countries after it expired. He also advocated peaceful diplomatic discussion with neighboring countries. The group—except for Mexico, which called for non-intervention in Venezuelan internal affairs—continued to back the Guaidó government, with the Foreign Minister of Chile pledging "unlimited support".
Organization of American States (OAS): The OAS approved a resolution on 10 January 2019 "to not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolas Maduro's new term". Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the OAS, recognized Guaidó on 23 January. In an extraordinary OAS session called for 24 January 16 countries including the US recognized Guaidó as president, but they did not achieve the majority needed for a resolution. Almagro held countries who remained neutral on the presidential crisis responsible for the massacre, suffering, and human rights violations in Venezuela.
The organizations supporting the National Assembly include the Venezuela Creditors Committee, a fund bank that can give loans to the ailing nation and which could not finalize an agreement with Maduro in 2017, and all of the other businesses represented by the OFAC union. These include Electricidad de Caracas, providing electrical power to the capital and surrounding areas. PDVSA, the nation's largest oil and gas company, was initially reported as supporting Guaidó, but later pledged loyalty to Maduro.
The Catholic Church in Venezuela, organized by the Episcopal Conference of Venezuela, released a statement by Monsignor Ovidio Pérez Morales on 15 January 2019 saying "The Church in Venezuela, united to its Bishops in communion with the Pope, declare the socialist-communist regime illegitimate and stand in solidarity with the Venezuelan people to rescue democracy, freedom, and justice. Trusting in God, they support the National Assembly". Cardinal Porras says: “This regime always calls for dialogue when it’s up to its neck in water but when the water level falls it forgets about it."
Despite internet blocks in Venezuela, by midday local time, the Twitter hashtag "#23Ene"—shorthand for "23 de Enero", Spanish for 23 January—was trending worldwide. Later in the day, five of the top ten trends were protest-related: "Venezuela", "Juan Guaidó", "#23Ene", "#GritemosConBrio", and "#Guaido". With protests continuing to the next day, "#24Ene" also trended.
It was reported in the late evening that Instagram had removed the "Verified" label from Maduro's account, instead placing one on Guaidó's account; this was denied by Instagram. Guaidó's description had also been updated to include "President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela". The following day, Facebook un-verified Maduro.
In January 2019, the Associated Press said that Maduro's administration and Venezuela's state-run media sought to discredit Guaidó with video footage "to paint [him] as a liar and a fraud". Venezuela's Communications Minister, Jorge Rodríguez, claimed to have proof of a meeting between Guaidó and United Socialist Party of Venezuela members, Diosdado Cabello and Freddy Bernal, in which Guaidó allegedly said he was under pressure from the United States. According to Guaidó, the meeting never happened. Rodríguez' proof came as collated short video clips. One clip shows Cabello walking through a hotel lobby, then cuts to show a man in a hooded sweatshirt (alleged to be Guaidó) entering and crossing the hall in the same direction as Cabello. The hooded man is heavily obscured and blurry, and it is impossible to identify the person.
Within minutes of Venezuela's state-run media posting the video, the hashtag #GuaidoChallenge went viral, trending worldwide. The hashtag made fun of the video posted by Rodríguez as supposed proof of this meeting. On 27 January, Guaidó held a public assembly and again challenged the Maduro administration to produce evidence of the alleged meeting. According to a translation on Caracas Chronicles, he said, "Show whatever you want, fabrications, with hoodie, without hoodie, audios. You confuse nobody here, the people see clearly."
As a protest about what they called foreign intervention, pro-Maduro social-media users used the hashtag '#HandsOffVenezuela' to share videos, pictures, and comments. China, a supporter of Maduro, has censored information about the crisis according to Radio Free Asia. Reports from China state that Chinese citizens who criticize Maduro on social media are punished or fined, with economist He Jiangbing saying that the Chinese government is "trying to prevent another color revolution ... because Venezuela and China are very similar".
Reuters has described previous polls in Venezuela as being "notoriously controversial and divergent". Stratfor says Maduro lost support of working-class Venezuelans as government handouts subsided; the opposition to Maduro has proposed plans to end the economic crisis, resulting in increased support for them.
President Iván Duque in Venezuela's neighboring Colombia was among the early supporters of Guaidó; a 7–11 February Colombian survey of 1,008 individuals in more than 20 cities, with a margin of error of 3%, found that his popularity had surged 15 points, partly because of his position on Venezuela, and that 70% of Colombians had a favorable view of Guaidó, and 93% had a negative impression of Maduro.
Surveys between 30 January and 1 February by Meganálisis recorded that 84.6% of respondents recognized Guaidó as interim president, 11.2% were undecided and 4.1% believe that Maduro was president. The study of 1,030 Venezuelans was conducted in 16 states and 32 cities.
A telephone survey of 999 Venezuelans by Hercon between 25 and 30 January showed that 81.9% of respondents recognized Guaidó as president, 13.4% said Maduro was president and 4.6% were undecided. A Meganálisis survey of 870 Venezuelans between 24 and 25 January reported that 83.7% of respondents recognized Guaidó as the legitimate president, 11.4% could not decide who was president and 4.8% recognized Maduro as president.
A pre-23 January 2019 poll by Hinterlaces, a pollster headed by Constituent National Assembly member Oscar Schemel and described as pro-Maduro, reported that 86% of Venezuelans would oppose a military intervention, that 81% oppose US sanctions, and that 84% support dialogue to end the crisis.
Surveys of 900 people between 19 and 20 January by Meganálisis reported that 81.4% hoped that Guaidó would be sworn in on 23 January while 84.2% supported a transitional government to replace Maduro's government. A telephone survey of 1,000 registered voters by Venezuelan pollster Hercon, conducted from 15 to 19 January 2019, reported 79.9% of respondents agreeing with Maduro leaving the presidency. Regarding the National Assembly, 68.8% of respondents rated their work as being positive while 15.6% rated their actions as negative. When asked if they agreed with the National Assembly swearing in Guaidó as interim president, 68.6% agreed and 19.4% disagreed.
- Sources reporting on claims of the National Assembly being the "only democratically elected" or "only legitimate" political body in Venezuela include: Financial Times, the BBC, Economic Times, CTV, Business Times, Reuters agency, CBC, etc.
- On unchecked power of the executive: Human Rights Watch 2018 report, Human Rights Watch 2017 report, Amnesty International, and Amnesty International on opposition.
- Luisa Ortega Díaz, Chief Prosecutor of Venezuela from 2007 to 2017, revealed that Maduro profited from the food crisis. CLAP made contracts with Group Grand Limited, a Mexican entity owned by Maduro through frontmen. Group Grand Limited would sell foodstuffs to CLAP and receive government funds. On 19 April 2018, after a multilateral meeting between over a dozen European and Latin American countries, US Treasury Department officials said they had investigated with Colombian officals corrupt import programs of the Maduro administration including CLAP. They explained that Venezuelan officials pocketed 70% of the proceeds allocated for importation programs destined to alleviate hunger in Venezuela. Treasury officials said they sought to seize the proceeds that were being funneled into the accounts of corrupt Venezuelan officials and hold them for a possible future government in Venezuela.
- The Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has recognized Guaidó, but the President of Bulgaria, has issued a statement condemning the foreign ministry's position, critisicing the EU's recognition of Guaidó and urging neturality
- Excluding Mexico.
- El Salvador changed its mind several times. Initially supporting Maduro, an official statement released on 24 January said they recognized Guaidó; later that day another statement was released, reiterating their backing of Maduro.
- Palestine is not placed under non-UN states because it is a UN observer.
- While Uruguay still recognizes Maduro as President, on 13 February the Uruguayan government released a joint statement with the Argentine government (who recognizes Guaidó) calling for new elections.
- Bullock, Penn (10 January 2019). "Climate Change, U.S. Shutdown, Michael Cohen: Your Friday Briefing". New York Times (Online) – via ProQuest.
President Nicolás Maduro was inaugurated for a second term after an election last year that was widely considered illegitimate — and despite a plummeting economy and skyrocketing violence, hunger and migration.
- "El Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de Venezuela declara "inconstitucional" a la Asamblea Nacional y anula el nombramiento de Juan Guaidó como su presidente". Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "National Assembly President Juan Guaido swears himself in as President of Venezuela". CNN. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Protestas en Venezuela: miles de personas participan en manifestaciones masivas contra el gobierno de Maduro". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Las 50 fotos de las masivas marchas contra la dictadura de Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela y Latinoamérica". Infobae (in Spanish). 24 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Sanchez, Ray and Nicole Chavez (23 January 2019). "Maduro defiant as Venezuelan opposition leader declares himself acting president". CNN. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "UN political chief calls for dialogue to ease tensions in Venezuela; Security Council divided over path to end crisis". Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Canciller Arreaza advierte que objetivo de plan golpista es el petróleo venezolano" (in Spanish). presidencia.gob.ve. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "'Oil' the 'sole and real' purpose behind US 'coup' attempt, says Venezuela's foreign minister". RT. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Maduro afirma que el petróleo es el principal motivo de la presión de EEUU contra Venezuela" (in Spanish). Europa Press. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Borges, Anelise (18 February 2019). "'I'm ready to die for my country's future,' Juan Guaido tells Euronews". Euronews. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Kevin Voigt (6 March 2013). "Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Corrales, Javier (7 March 2013). "The House That Chavez Built". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Siegel, Robert (25 December 2014). "For Venezuela, Drop In Global Oil Prices Could Be Catastrophic". NPR. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- Lansberg-Rodríguez, Daniel (15 March 2015). "Coup Fatigue in Caracas". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist. 20 August 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Casey, Nicholas; Torres, Patricia (30 March 2017). "Venezuela Muzzles Legislature, Moving Closer to One-Man Rule". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
- "Venezuela's Lame-Duck Congress Names New Supreme Court Justices". Bloomberg. 23 December 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
- "Venezuela's embattled socialist president calls for citizens congress, new constitution". USA Today. Associated Press. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Silvio Cascione (5 August 2017). "Mercosur suspends Venezuela, urges immediate transition". Reuters.com. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "La lista de los 40 países democráticos que hasta el momento desconocieron la Asamblea Constituyente de Venezuela". Infobae (in Spanish). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "Venezuela: New assembly leader warns 'justice will come'". 4 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
"As Venezuela unrest spreads, Maduro presses on with plans to rewrite charter". Reuters. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
"Venezuelan gov't proposes constitutional assembly election on July 30". EFE. 4 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
"40 countries protest Venezuela's new assembly amid fraud accusations". Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "Venezuela opposition boycotts meeting on Maduro assembly, clashes rage". Reuters. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Mogollon, Mery; Kraul, Chris (29 July 2017). "As Venezuelan election nears, more upheaval and cries of fraud". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- "What are Venezuelans voting for and why is it so divisive?". BBC News. 30 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- Bronstein, Hugh (29 July 2017). "Venezuelan opposition promises new tactics after Sunday's vote". Reuters India. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- Goodman, Joshua and Fabiola Sanchez (8 August 2017). "New Venezuela assembly declares itself superior government branch". The Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- "Venezuela's Maduro begins second term". BBC News. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Long, Gideon (13 January 2019). "Venezuela's opposition vows to help end Maduro's rule". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
... the National Assembly is the only democratically elected institution left in the country ...
- "Venezuela crisis: Guaido rejects talks with Maduro". BBC News. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Russia, China block US push for UN to back Venezuela's Juan Guaidó". Economic Times. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Freeland says Venezuela's Maduro regime is now fully entrenched as a dictatorship". CTV. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Russia, China, Greece supports Maduro regime". Business Times. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Reuters: US pushes UN Security Council to back Venezuela's Guaidó". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Singh calls on Trudeau to part ways with US, Brazil on Venezuela crisis". CBC News. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Venezuela: Events of 2018". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
No independent government institutions remain today in Venezuela to act as a check on executive power. A series of measures by the Maduro and Chávez governments stacked the courts with judges who make no pretense of independence. The government has been repressing dissent through often-violent crackdowns on street protests, jailing opponents, and prosecuting civilians in military courts. It has also stripped power from the opposition-led legislature. ...In 2017, President Maduro convened a 'Constituent Assembly' by presidential decree, despite a constitutional requirement that a public referendum be held before any effort to rewrite the Constitution. The assembly is made up exclusively of government supporters chosen through an election that Smartmatic, a British company hired by the government to verify the results, called fraudulent. The Constituent Assembly has, in practice, replaced the opposition-led National Assembly as the country’s legislative branch.
- "Venezuela: Events of 2017". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
The Venezuelan government has jailed political opponents and disqualified them from running for office. At time of writing, more than 340 political prisoners were languishing in Venezuelan prisons or intelligence services headquarters, according to the Penal Forum, a Venezuelan network of pro-bono criminal defense lawyers. ...In mid-2017, the Supreme Court sentenced five opposition mayors, after summary proceedings that violated international norms of due process, to 15 months in prison and disqualified them from running for office.
- "Venezuela 2017–2018". Amnesty International. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
The judicial system continued to be used to silence dissidents, including using military jurisdiction to prosecute civilians. The justice system continued to be subject to government interference, especially in cases involving people critical of the government or those who were considered to be acting against the interests of the authorities. The Bolivarian National Intelligence Service continued to ignore court decisions to transfer and release people in its custody.
- "Wave of arrests as government turns against elected opposition". Amnesty International. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
The arrest of four officials from the opposition in Venezuela, the removal from office of a further 11 and the issuing of arrest warrants against another five, demonstrates the Maduro administration’s tightening stranglehold on any form of dissent, taking repression to a frightening new level, said Amnesty International.
- "Venezuela opposition weighs election run". BBC News. 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- "ANC aprobó un decreto para la validación de los partidos políticos". El Nacional. 20 December 2017.
- Olmo (@BBCgolmo), Guillermo D. (10 January 2019). "Por qué es polémico que Maduro jure como presidente de Venezuela y por qué lo hace ahora si las elecciones fueron en mayo". BBC News Mundo. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Maduro gana con la abstención histórica más alta en comicios presidenciales - Efecto Cocuyo". efectococuyo.com. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Venezuela opposition banned from running in 2018 election". BBC News. 11 December 2017.
- Sen, Ashish Kumar. "Venezuela's Sham Election". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Corrales, Javier. "Venezuela's Odd Transition to Dictatorship". Americas Quarterly. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Brodzinsky, Sibylla (21 October 2016). "Venezuelans warn of 'dictatorship' after officials block bid to recall Maduro". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Almagro: Maduro se transforma en dictador por negarles a venezolanos derecho a decidir su futuro". CNN en Español. 24 August 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Venezuela Swears in an illegitimate President". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Herrero, Ana Vanessa; Specia, Megan (10 January 2019). "Venezuela Is in Crisis. So How Did Maduro Secure a Second Term?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Peru, Paraguay recall diplomats over Maduro inauguration | Venezuela News". Aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Corao, Manuel (28 September 2018). "¿Dónde está el gobierno de transición en Venezuela?". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Ortiz, Alexis (30 November 2018). "Primera meta de gobierno de transición en Venezuela: la estabilidad". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "Fuego amigo: el caos de la oposición venezolana". International Crisis Group. 23 November 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (in English)" (PDF). 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "AN se declara en emergencia ante la usurpación de Nicolás Maduro en el cargo de la Presidencia de la República". Asambleanacional.gob.ve (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Zambrano, Diego A. (1 February 2019). "Guaidó, Not Maduro, Is the De Jure President of Venezuela". Lawfare. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Asamblea Nactional on Instagram". Official Page of Venezuela National Assembly (in Spanish). Instagram. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Guaidó, Juan (15 January 2019). "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "La oposición condiciona el diálogo: "Cese de la usurpación, gobierno de transición y elecciones libres"". Libertad Digital. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Redacción (7 January 2019). "Christian Zerpa, el juez afín a Maduro que huyó a Estados Unidos y denuncia falta de independencia del poder judicial de Venezuela". BBC News Mundo. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "La OEA aprobó la resolución que declara ilegítimo al nuevo gobierno de Nicolás Maduro" [The OAS approved the resolution that declared the new government of Nicolás Maduro illegitimate]. Infobae (in Spanish). 10 January 2019.
- "Maduro asumió pese a EEUU, la OEA, la UE y las amenazas de la oposición". Portalalba.org. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Venezuela Congress leader challenges Maduro's right to presidency - News". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "As Maduro Makes Enemies, Venezuela's Caribbean Allies Remain In His Camp". NPR. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Caracas, Stephen Gibbs (11 January 2019). "World leaders shun Venezuela as 'dictator' Maduro sworn in". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Padrino López dice estar dispuesto a morir por Maduro y la Constitución". La Patilla (in Spanish). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Phillips, Tom (10 January 2019). "Maduro starts new Venezuela term by accusing US of imperialist 'world war'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Asamblea Nacional arranca proceso para Ley de Transicion". Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Smith, Scott (10 January 2019). "Isolation greets Maduro's new term as Venezuela's president". AP News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "El Tiempo | Venezuela | Asamblea Nacional se declaró en emergencia y convocó a cabildo abierto | El Periódico del Pueblo Oriental". eltiempo.com.ve (in Spanish). Global Host. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó: Me apego a los artículos 333, 350 y 233 para lograr el cese de la usurpación y convocar elecciones libres con la unión del pueblo, FAN y comunidad internacional" (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Venezuela congress leader challenges Maduro's right to presidency". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Prensa de la AN rectifica comunicado que proclama a Juan Guaidó Presidente de la República". Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Phillips, Tom (11 January 2019). "Venezuela: opposition leader declares himself ready to assume presidency". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Tribunal Supremo de Justicia pide a Asamblea Nacional tomar la presidencia de Venezuela". El Salvador noticias (in Spanish). 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Venezuela congress asks foreign countries to freeze Maduro-linked..." Reuters. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Guaidó, Juan. "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Parallel government emerging in Venezuela". Argus Media. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó y FAVL afinan agenda única para movilización del 23Ene". Analitica (in Spanish). 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Venezuela opposition plans incentives for officers who disavow Maduro". Uk.reuters.com. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó se declara presidente da venezuela e tem apoio do brasil". VEJA (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Semana. "Alejandro Baena, candidato liberal a la alcaldía de Cali". Alejandro Baena, candidato liberal a la alcaldía de Cali.
- "Venezuela's opposition is gambling it all on a young and untested activist named Juan Guaidó". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Venezuela opposition leader briefly detained". BBC News. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Gobierno Maduro destituyó a agentes que detuvieron a Juan Guaidó en un procedimiento "irregular"" (in Spanish). Noticias Caracol. EFE. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- correspondent, Tom Phillips Latin America (13 January 2019). "Venezuela opposition leader briefly detained after challenging Maduro". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó desde Vargas: "Hay un presidente legítimo de la AN y de toda Venezuela"". albertonews.com.
- "Venezuela: Periodistas son detenidas en plena transmisión en vivo por el Sebin [Video]". El Comercio (in Spanish). 13 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Venezuelan army forces in Peru say they don't recognize Maduro as their President". Miami Herald. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Militares venezolanos en Perú desconocen a Maduro como presidente y apoyan a Guaidó". America TV. 17 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó Says Venezuelan Opposition Had Secret Talks With Military". New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Venezuela's military could turn on Nicolás Maduro, according to officials in exile". Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Regime change hopes bolster Venezuela bonds". NASDAQ. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Phillips, Tom (22 January 2019). "Venezuela claims it has foiled attempted military uprising". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Venezuela Puts down Mutiny by National Guard Unit". Voice of America. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Dos muertos y cinco heridos dejan nuevas protestas contra gobierno de Maduro". El Caracol (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Mujer fue asesinada en la puerta de su casa por un colectivo en Cotiza". El Nacional (in Spanish). 21 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Venezuela 'foils national guard rebellion' against Maduro". BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "National Assembly President Juan Guaido swears himself in as President of Venezuela". CNN. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Daniels, Joe Parkin (23 January 2019). "Venezuela protests: thousands march as military faces call to abandon Maduro". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Guaido, Juan (23 January 2019). "Juan Guaidó on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Revolt in Venezuela". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 January 2019. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Crowds defy police to cry out for change in Venezuela". Sky News. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Daniels, Joe Parkin (23 January 2019). "Venezuela: Trump recognises opposition leader as president". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Inicia la manifestación de la oposición en Venezuela". CNN (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Protestas en Venezuela: oposición y oficialismo marchan". CNN (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Venezuelans Heed Call to Hit the Streets With Maduro Under Pressure". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Venezuela opposition leader Juan Guaido declares himself interim president before thousands cheering in support". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Violent protests in Venezuela: Live updates". Cnn.com. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Venezuela protests as two leaders vie to be president – in pictures". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Reportan 13 fallecidos tras últimas protestas en todo el país #23Ene". La Patilla (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "UN calls for Venezuela investigation". CNN. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Sanchez, Ray and Nicole Chavez (23 January 2019). "Maduro defiant as Venezuelan opposition leader declares himself acting president". CNN. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Maduro: Hay un golpe mediático internacional contra Venezuela para desfigurar la situación real". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Mars, Amanda (3 February 2019). "Así se lanzó Trump al derribo de Maduro". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Maduro está dispuesto a reunirse con Guaidó "desnudo o a las tres de la mañana en el Humboldt"". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "Maduro se atornilló en la silla: No he abandonado, ni dejaré el cargo". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "'Bolsonaro is Hitler!' Venezuela's Maduro exclaims amid Brazil spat". Reuters.com. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Venezuela power struggle hinges on Nicolas Maduro's military". CBS News. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Venezuela's opposition leader urges military to abandon Maduro". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Venezuela crisis: Guaidó rejects calls to talk with Maduro". BBC. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Inside John Bolton's Month-Long P.R. Campaign Against Venezuela's Government". Time. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "John Bolton: "Big difference" if "US oil companies invest in & produce oil in Venezuela"". Oil Change International. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó presentó el "Plan País" para el 'rescate' de Venezuela". La República (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó llegó su casa, que fue rodeada por el Faes: La dictadura cree que nos va a amedrentar". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "LA FOTO: La llegada de Juan Guaidó a su casa, luego de amedrentamiento del Faes". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Comandante general de la PNB niega que comisiones del Faes visitaran la residencia de Guaidó". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Vecinos apoyan a Guaidó frente a su casa, tras acoso del Faes (foto)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Nicolás Maduro le advierte a Juan Guaidó que podría terminar en la cárcel". Noticias Caracol (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
Cuestionó que el 'payaso' que se proclamó presidente no haya convocado elecciones, como dicta la Constitución. ¿Hasta cuándo irá su mandato?, preguntó. '¿Va a continuar en su mandato virtual? ¿Hasta cuándo, hasta el 2025 también? ¿O hasta que termine en la cárcel por mandato del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia? ¿Hasta cuándo?, le advirtió al presidente interino.
- Soto, Claudio (24 January 2019). ""Estaba pensando enviar a mi asistente al autoproclamado, a que le acabe la vida": El comentario sobre Guaidó que Maduro calificó como "chiste"" (in Spanish). La Tercera. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "¿Amenaza chavista? Video: "Señor Guaidó, usted no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca"". Urgente 24 (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
El chavismo/madurismo está descontrolado, y este martes 05/02 el presidente de la ilegítima Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC) y número 2 de Venezuela, Diosdado Cabello, lanzó una nueva amenaza al presidente encargado de la República. Mire señor Guaidó usted no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca de usted, no sabe qué se siente cuando una bala pega a tres centímetros o aun cuarto de donde está a usted y se escucha cuando pega, no tiene la más mínima idea de lo que eso significa'. Explicó que 'quien se atreva intentar atropellar a la patria tendrá una respuesta 'contundente'. 'No nos va a importar absolutamente nada', añadió.
- "Diosdado amenazó con una bala a Juan Guaidó". Noticias Venezuela (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
... le advirtió que el chavismo estaba dispuesto a todo con tal de defender la “revolución” y su permanencia en el poder. 'Así como el pueblo salió el 2 de febrero a celebrar la revolución, nos van a ver en la calle movilizados, moralizados y listos para el combate', agregó. Le pregunté hasta dónde estaba dispuesto a llegar, porque nosotros sí estamos dispuestos. Le dije ‘señor Guaidó, usted no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca’”, contó Diosdado en su discurso ante la ANC chavista.
- "Diosdado Cabello: Guaidó no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca". El Nacional (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Guaido says Venezuela's opposition is 'not going anywhere' in CBC interview". CBC Canada. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Spanish text and video of Guaidó's full response also at ElEstimulo and ATodoMomento "Con respecto a las supuestas amenazas; aquí seguimos ... triste y lamentablemente, al pueblo de Venezuela le ha tocado escuchar muchos silbidos de bala. Caracas es la capital más violenta del mundo ... Ha sufrido asasinatos politicos ... han matado a más de cuarenta niños. ... El pueblo de Venezuela ha tenido que escuchar demasiado ya silbidos de balas producidos por un régimen que no le interesa la vida, el bienestar de los venezolanos. ... que necesitan hoy medicina y comida ... Así que, con amenazas veladas no nos va a detener”.
- "Guaidó afirma que la abuela de su esposa fue amenazada por colectivos" (in Spanish). La República. 10 February 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Otra diplomática venezolana en EEUU reconoce a Guaidó como presidente". El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Embajador de Venezuela en Irak se aparta de Maduro y reconoce a Guaidó". 2 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "Embajador de Venezuela en Irak reconoce a Guaidó como Presidente". 3 February 2019.
- "La "tragedia" de los diplomáticos chavistas en EEUU". Venezuela al Día (in Spanish). 27 January 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Venezuela consul in Miami abandons Maduro amid global push to turn diplomats". Miami Herald. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Yucra, Janet (6 February 2019). "Funcionarias del consulado de Venezuela en Chicago reconocieron a Guaidó como presidente encargado". Caraota Digital. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Trump administration accepts Guaido ally as Venezuela envoy in U.S." Reuters. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "A Conversation with Venezuela's New Permanent Representative to the OAS, Special Ambassador Gustavo Tarre". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Venezuelan Parliament OKs Guaido's diplomatic appointments". Alianza News. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Asamblea Nacional designa 11 representantes diplomáticos en el mundo". NTN24 (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "AN nombró a tres nuevos representantes de Venezuela en el exterior". El Nacional (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Guaidó, Juan (January 29, 2019). "Venezolanos en #Argentina: a partir de hoy cuentan con una representante oficial y legítima. A esta hora, la Diplomática designada, Elisa Trotta Gamus, es recibida por el Presidente @mauriciomacri. Al Gob. de Argentina ¡Gracias por su reconocimiento y compromiso con Venezuela!pic.twitter.com/6ZKTUeK9jA". @jguaido (in Spanish). Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- "Quién es Elisa Trotta Gamus, la representant nombró Guaidó en Argentina". www.perfil.com. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Trujillo, Carlos Holmes (January 29, 2019). "El Gobierno Nacional reconoce a Humberto Calderón Berti, designado como representante diplomático de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela en Colombia". @CarlosHolmesTru (in Spanish). Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- "Colombia reconoció a Humberto Calderón Berti como representante diplomático de Venezuela". Noticias Caracol (in Spanish). January 29, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Biggs, Stuart; Shankleman, Jess (29 January 2019). "U.K. Leaves Fate of Venezuela's Gold Up to the Bank of England". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Maduro calls for return of Venezuela's UK-deposited gold". Yahoo. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Chacón, Francisco (6 February 2019). "Así se gestó la presencia de Novo Banco en Venezuela" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Maria Delgado, Antonio (5 February 2019). "Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro orders multiple arrests within military to squelch dissent". Miami Herald. Retrieved 6 February 2019. Also at Chicago Tribune
- "Trump to discuss Venezuela with Colombian president: White House". France 24. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Palmer, Elizabeth (7 February 2019). "Hunger pushing Maduro's troops to tipping point in Venezuela". CBS News. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "EN VIDEO: General de división del Alto Mando Militar de la aviación reconoce a Guaidó como presidente (e)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Venezuela crisis: Opposition supporters host nationwide rallies". BBC. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "General de la Fuerza Aérea envió un mensaje al personal militar". El Nacional (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "Mayor General Jorge Oropeza se pronuncia contra el régimen de Maduro y en respaldo a Guaidó (VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "Teniente Coronel de la FAN reconoció a Guaidó como presidente interino en marcha de Aragua". 2001. 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "Funcionarios de la PNB en Lara se retiran y abren paso a los manifestantes". El Nacional (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "PNB retira a sus hombres en Barquisimeto: "No voy a reprimir al pueblo"". Venezuela al Día (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "GNB se retiró de la marcha en Táchira para permitir instalación de tarima". El Nacional (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- ""Desconocemos el régimen", jefe de las fuerzas policiales en Trujillo respaldó a Guaidó". 2001.com (in Spanish). 3 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Carlos Guyon Celis, pidió a la FAN cortar las cadenas que oprimen al pueblo hace 20 años". El Carabobeño (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Supuesto audio de militar revela la división interna". Venepress (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Venezuela crisis: Diplomat to US defects from Maduro". BBC. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Pardo, Paul (4 February 2019). "¿Cómo sería una invasión de Estados Unidos en Venezuela?". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Private military contractors linked to Russia are reportedly in Venezuela to protect Maduro". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Russia denies sending mercenaries to protect Venezuela's president". South China Morning Post. 28 January 2019.
- "Russia warns against foreign interference in Venezuela". Anadolu Agency. 28 January 2019.
- "Cuba Is Making the Crisis in Venezuela Worse". Foreign Policy. 7 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- Charles, Mathew (2 February 2019). "ELN interview: Colombian Marxist guerrillas 'will fight' US troops if they invade Venezuela". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Denuncian que guerrillas colombianas causaron muerte a venezolanos durante manifestaciones contra Maduro". 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Pardo, Pablo (4 February 2019). "¿Cómo sería una invasión de Estados Unidos en Venezuela?". El Mundo. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- Hains, Tim (1 February 2019). "John Bolton: "All Options Are On The Table" For Venezuela; Hope For "Peaceful" Transfer Of Power". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Mientras familias pasan hambre, Maduro asegura que "invertirá" en los misiles más modernos del mundo (VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 10 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Venezuela opposition warns military against preventing entry of aid". France24. 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Gehrke, Joel (24 January 2019). "Pompeo pledges $20M aid package to Venezuela after request from Maduro opposition leader". WashingtonExaminer. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "UN tells Venezuela's Guaido that government must agree to aid". Yahoo News. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- Rueda, Manuel and Clbyburn Saint John (31 January 2019). "AP Interview: Venezuela's Guaido vows to defy ban on aid". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Canada's Trudeau announces $53 million in aid to Venezuelans". France 24. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Germany to release 5 million euros of aid for Venezuela when circumstances allow it". Associated Press. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Sweden sending aid to Venezuela as political crisis deepens". Radio Sweden. 1 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Juan Guaidó denunció que el régimen de Nicolás Maduro quiere transferir 1.200 millones de dólares a Uruguay". InfoBAE (in Spanish). 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
Guaidó no dio más detalles de su denuncia pero sí agregó que, además, el chavismo "planea robar" la ayuda humanitaria que está recolectando con colaboración de la comunidad internacional.
- "Maduro podría ser dueño de empresa méxicana distribuidora de los CLAP". El Nacional (in Spanish). 23 August 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Wyss, Jim (23 August 2017). "Venezuela's ex-prosecutor Luisa Ortega accuses Maduro of profiting from nation's hunger". Miami Herald. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Prengaman, Peter (23 August 2017). "Venezuela's ousted prosecutor accuses Maduro of corruption". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Campos, Rodrigo (19 April 2018). "U.S., Colombian probe targets Venezuela food import program". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Goodman, Joshua and Luis Alonso Lugo (19 April 2018). "US officials: 16 nations agree to track Venezuela corruption". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "Freddy Bernal recorre frontera con Cúcuta tras anuncio de llegada de ayuda humanitaria". NTN24. 3 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Sanchez, Maria Isabel (6 February 2019). "Venezuela's military blocks humanitarian aid shipment". Yahoo news. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Suarez Sang, Lucia I. (6 February 2019). "Venezuela military sets up blockade on bridge to stop aid from Colombia". Fox News. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Opinión, Diario la. "Tienditas, el puente de 40 millones de dólares que no han estrenado". La Opinión.
- Adam Johnson (9 February 2019). "Western Media Fall in Lockstep for Cheap Trump/Rubio Venezuela Aid PR Stunt". Fair.
- Leonett, Vanessa (9 February 2019). "Cabello amenazó con derribar aviones que intenten ingresar con ayuda humanitaria a Venezuela". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Armario, Christine and Leonardo Haberkorn (7 February 2019). "US emergency aid for Venezuela arrives at Colombian border". Associated Press. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Maduro niega crisis humanitaria en Venezuela pero se le fue la luz (VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 8 February 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "OHCHR | Venezuela: Dire living conditions worsening by the day, UN human rights experts warn". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "La ONU urge aumentar financiamiento para programas de ayuda humanitaria a venezolanos". La Patilla (in Spanish). 8 February 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "UN Warns Against Politicizing Humanitarian Aid in Venezuela". New York Times. Reuters. 9 February 2019.
- "Red Cross warns U.S. about risks of sending aid to Venezuela". PBS. 1 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Red Cross expands Venezuela operations as crisis grows". Yahoo News. AFP. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Gámez Torres, Nora (4 February 2019). "Maduro sends 100 tons of aid to Cuba as Venezuela meanders through its own crisis". Miami Herald. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "The Latest: Guaido calls for aid conference on Venezuela". Associated Press. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Nicolás Maduro en entrevista con la BBC: "El Ku Klux Klan que hoy gobierna la Casa Blanca quiere apoderarse de Venezuela"". BBC News. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Guaidó: En 11 días la Fanb tendrá que decidir si están del lado de los venezolanos y la Constitución o del usurpador". La Patilla (in Spanish). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Delcy Rodríguez, vicepresidenta de Venezuela, afirma que ayuda humanitaria está contaminada". CNN (in Spanish). 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- "Conferencia de la OEA recauda $ 100 millones para ayuda humanitaria de Venezuela". Venezuela al Día (in Spanish). 14 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Miles, Tom (15 February 2019). "U.S. derides Venezuela's accusation of lacing aid with poison". Reuters. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "US Announces 25 Countries to Give $100 Million Aid to Crisis-hit Venezuela". News18. 15 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Bristow, Matthew (14 February 2019). "Richard Branson Plans Live Aid-Style Concert on Venezuela's Border". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- "Venezuela stages own concerts in response to Branson's Live Aid show". Reuters. 19 February 2019.
- Henao, Luis (18 February 2019). "Venezuela's Maduro to throw concert rivaling Richard Branson". Associated Press.
- "Wikipedia blocked in Venezuela as internet controls tighten". NetBlocks. 12 January 2019. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- Web, El Nacional (12 January 2019). "Usuarios de Cantv denuncian que el acceso a Wikipedia está bloqueado". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Nota de Juan Guaidó en Wikipedia cambia 37 veces en dos horas y nueve minutos este #11E". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Wikimedia Venezuela (16 January 2019). "Sobre el bloqueo en Wikipedia: Comunicado Oficial". Twitter (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Perfil de Guaidó en Wikipedia lo señala como presidente interino de Venezuela" [Profile of Guaidó in Wikipedia designates him as acting president of Venezuela]. Noticiero Digital (in Spanish). 11 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Cantv habría bloqueado acceso a Wikipedia donde se señaló que Juan Guaidó era "presidente venezolano"" [CANTV reportedly blocked access to Wikipedia where it was claimed that Juan Guaidó was "Venezuelan president".]. Venepress (in Spanish). 12 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Wikipedia asumió que Juan Guaidó es el presidente interino de Venezuela" [Wikipedia assumed that Juan Guaidó is the acting president of Venezuela]. Diario 2001 (in Spanish). 11 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Social media outage and disruptions in Venezuela amid incident in Caracas". NetBlocks. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Twitter es bloqueado en Venezuela". MVS Noticias. Retrieved 23 January 2019.[permanent dead link]
- Venezuela, Wikimedia (23 January 2019). "#23Ene Reportamos, nuevamente, un bloqueo parcial para acceder a #Wikipedia en #Venezuela desde @ContactoCantv y @SomosMovilnet_. Ayúdanos a reportar: ¿puedes acceder sin problemas? ¡Los leemos! @Wikimediapic.twitter.com/XeVOh8zWMM". @wikimedia_ve (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Major Internet disruptions in Venezuela amid protests". NetBlocks. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Evidence of regional internet blackouts across Venezuela". NetBlocks. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Net Blocks denuncia bloqueos de Internet en Venezuela durante los últimos días". La Patilla (in Spanish). 27 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Venezuela National Assembly live streams disrupted". NetBlocks. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Disruptions in Venezuela affecting YouTube and other services during political rally". NetBlocks. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "NetBlocks denuncia bloqueos a YouTube para censurar las manifestaciones de Guaidó este #12Feb". La Patilla (in Spanish). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "YouTube and Google services restricted in Venezuela as Guaidó speaks". NetBlocks. 2019-02-18. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- "Denuncian que Conatel ordenó eliminar el canal de 24 Horas de Chile de las cableoperadoras". La Patilla (in Spanish). 24 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- Venezuela, Conatel (31 January 2019). "Conoce el artículo 27 de la Ley Resorte". @Conatel (in Spanish). Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- González Mendoza, Isaac (31 January 2019). "Censura a emisoras, televisoras y plataformas arreció desde el 22 de enero". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "César Miguel Rondón se despide de la radio y transmitirá programa por Periscope e Instagram". NTN24 | www.ntn24.com (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Conatel amenaza con cerrar a medios privados que llamen a Guaidó presidente encargado". NTN24. 24 January 2019.
Algunas radios y televisoras privadas del país han recibido una amenaza por parte de Conatel si reconocen al diputado Juan Guaidó como presidente encargado o interino de Venezuela. [Some private radios and television stations in the country have received a threat from Conatel if they recognize deputy Juan Guaidó as acting president or interim president of Venezuela.]
- "Régimen de Maduro ha detenido a 11 trabajadores de la prensa en las últimas 24 horas". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Sntp denuncia detención arbitraria de periodistas de TVVenezuela, VPI TV y TVN Chile". La Patilla (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Periodistas chilenos fueron deportados desde Venezuela". Tele 13 (in Spanish). 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Sntp denuncia que dos periodistas franceses y otro venezolano también están detenidos en Miraflores". La Patilla (in Spanish). 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Au Venezuela, la presse étrangère dans le collimateur". Le Monde (in French). 30 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Les deux journalistes de "Quotidien" racontent leur détention au Venezuela". www.20minutes.fr (in French). Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "Arreaza denuncia "operación mediática" tras detención de periodistas extranjeros". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Maduro niega detención de periodistas y asegura que son "montajes" en entrevista con Jordi Évole (VIDEO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Sector salud y ciudadanía se congregan en actividad de VoluntariosxVenezuela el #16F". Tal Cual Digital (in Spanish). 16 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- "Más de 600.000 personas se inscribieron en VoluntariosxVenezuela". El Nacional (in Spanish). 16 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
- Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo and Jason Koebler (15 February 2019). "Venezuela's Government Appears To Be Trying to Hack Activists With Phishing Pages". Motherboard. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "DNS Manipulation in Venezuela in regards to the Humanitarian Aid Campaign". securelist.com. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Cantv redirecciona página de Voluntarios X Venezuela a portal falso". NTN24 | www.ntn24.com (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Denuncian creación un sitio web idéntico al portal Voluntarios X Venezuela". El Nacional (in Spanish). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Venezuela humanitarian aid volunteer platform blocked". NetBlocks. 2019-02-17. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- Rama, Edi (24 January 2019). "#Albania recognizes Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela. On behalf of the people of #Albania I wish to @JGuaido and the brave venezuelans to succeed in getting rid of the illegitimate power that has turned their country in a hell for its own people #VenezuelaLibre". Twitter. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Morina, Die. "US Balkan Allies Recognise New Venezuela President". www.Balkaninsight.com. Balkaninsight. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Vella, Redacció, Agències, Andorra la (5 February 2019). "Andorra reconeix Guaidó com a president veneçolà". DiariAndorra.ad. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Pronunciamento de Apoyo a Gobierno de Transicion en Venezuela". Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto. Government of Argentina. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
The delegations of Argentina, Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the United States, Honduras, Guatemala, Haiti, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the Dominican Republic reaffirm the right to democracy enjoyed by the peoples of the Americas ... In this context, we recognize and express our full support to the President of the National Assembly, Juan Guaidó, who has assumed the role of President in charge of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, in accordance with the constitutional norms and the illegitimacy of the Nicolás Maduro regime.
- "Statement on Venezuela". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Government of Australia. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
Australia recognises and supports the President of the National Assembly, Juan Guaidó, in assuming the position of interim president
- "Austria recognizes Guaido as interim president of Venezuela: Kurz". Reuters. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Kurz, Sebastian (4 February 2019). "El régimen de #Maduro se ha negado hasta la fecha a aceptar unas elecciones presidenciales libres y justas. Por este motivo, consideramos desde este momento al Presidente @jguaido como Presidente interino legítimo de conformidad con la Constitución venezolana" (in Spanish). twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poland (4 February 2019). "Joint declaration on #Venezuela". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Reynders, Didier (4 February 2019). "We steunen @jguaido in zijn opdracht om vrije en transparante verkiezingen te organiseren, zodat de bevolking zich vrij kan uitspreken en zodat er in #Venezuela verzoening kan komen. We steunen de contactgroep, opgericht met de #EU, in deze overgangsperiode" (in Dutch). Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Позиция на МВнР". www.mfa.bg. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- Zaharieva, Ekaterina (6 February 2019). "Today the #Bulgarian government decided to officially support and accept @jguaido as acting President of #Venezuela. We need a new democratic presidential vote. Committed to the better future of the people of 🇻🇪. Looking forward to the first meeting of the EU-driven #ContactGroup". Twitter. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Радев поиска България да не подкрепя опозицията във Венецуела". Mediapool.bg. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Радев пак разкритикува правителството за Венецуела | Политика". offnews.bg. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Радев поиска да не подкрепяме европейската позиция за ситуацията във Венецуела | Политика". offnews.bg. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Радев иска България да се въздържи от позиция за Венецуела | webcafe.bg". www.webcafe.bg. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Радев атакува Борисов, сравни България с Венецуела". Vesti.bg. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- MVEP/MFEA (4 February 2019). "RH podupire demokratski izabrana tijela Venezuele i pridružuje se zemljama članicama EU u izjavi. U skladu s Ustavom potrebno je provesti slobodne, pravedne i demokratske predsjedničke izbore" (in Croatian). Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poland (4 February 2019). "Phone call between FMs #Czaputowicz and Roberto Ampuero Espinoza...The chief of Polish diplomacy told that in view of Nicolas Maduro's ailure to call early presidential elections, Poland intended to recognize @jguaido, as..interim president". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Petříček, Tomáš (4 February 2019). "I welcome that the Government of the Czech Republic recognizes Juan #Guaidó as Interim President of #Venezuela who should lead his country to the democratic elections". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "EU countries recognise Juan Guaidó as interim Venezuelan leader". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
European countries including Spain, France, the UK, Sweden and Denmark have recognised Juan Guaidó as interim president of Venezuela in a coordinated move made after a deadline for Nicolás Maduro to call presidential elections expired.
- Samuelsen, Anders (4 February 2019). "Denmark recognises the President of the National Assembly @jguaido as the interim President of #Venezuela until new free and democratic elections take place. Applaud similar statements from key EU partners. Important EU statement coming up #dkpol". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Estonian MFA (4 February 2019). "Estonia recognises Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of #Venezuela, people of Venezuela have inalienable right to freely & democratically choose their leaders and to decide about their own future. We expect @jguaido to call for new, free and fair presidential elections". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- ulkoministeriö(Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland) (4 February 2019). "FM #Soini: To support the constitutional process in Venezuela, Finland supports Guaido as interim President of Venezuela". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Macron, Emmanuel (4 February 2019). "Les Vénézuéliens ont le droit de s'exprimer librement et démocratiquement. La France reconnaît @jguaido comme " président en charge " pour mettre en œuvre un processus électoral. Nous soutenons le Groupe de contact, créé avec l'UE, dans cette période de transition" (in French). twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Mamuka Bakhtadze: Georgia recognizes Juan Guaido as Interim President of Venezuela and supports courageous people of Venezuela in their fight for democracy". 1TV. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Bakhtadze, Mamuka (24 January 2019). "🇬🇪 recognizes @jguaido as Interim President of #Venezuela. We express hope that @AsambleaVE will establish a transitional government, prepare free & fair elections & ensure peaceful transition of power. 🇬🇪 supports the courageous people of Venezuela in their fight for democracy". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Germany Recognises Guaido as Legitimate Interim President of Venezuela". NY Times. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Seibert, Steffen (4 February 2019). "Kanzlerin #Merkel zu #Venezuela: Juan #Guaidó ist aus deutscher Sicht der legitime Interimspräsident für die Aufgabe, einen Wahlprozess zu initiieren. Wir hoffen, dass sich dieser Prozess möglichst kurz und friedlich gestaltet" (in German). Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Hungary supports the Spanish People's Party's position with relation to Venezuela". Website of the Hungarian Government. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- Þór, Guðlaugur (4 February 2019). "Iceland supports @jguaido as the Interim President of Venezuela. Free and fair elections should now be called and the will of the people respected". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Irish Foreign Ministry (6 February 2019). "Tánaiste @simoncoveney announces Ireland's support for Mr. Juan Guaidó. Full statement available at." Twitter. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Israel recognizes Guaido as leader of Venezuela". Reuters. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
'Israel joins the United States, Canada, most of the countries of Latin America and countries in Europe in recognizing the new leadership in Venezuela,' said Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in a statement.
- PM of Israel (27 January 2019). "Israel joins the United States, Canada, most of the countries of Latin America and countries in Europe in recognizing the new leadership in Venezuela". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Rinkēvičs, Edgars (4 February 2019). "Latvia recognises and supports Mr. Juan Guaidó, President of the democratically elected National Assembly, as President ad interim of #Venezuela. We call for free, fair and democratic presidential elections @jguaido". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Linkevicius, Linas (4 February 2019). "#Lithuania joins other #EU MS in supporting & acknowledging @jguaido, President of @AsambleaVE, as VZ President ad interim. We expect free & democratic elections, strongly support ICG, initiated by EU. Democracy & rule of law in #Venezuela must be restored, human rights protected". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- MFA Luxembourg (4 February 2019). "Jean #Asselborn: like most #EU partners #Luxembourg recognizes the President of the democratically elected National Assembly Juan #Guaidó as interim President of #Venezuela with the authority to implement process leading to free, fair & democratic presidential elections @jguaido". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Government of Malta (5 February 2019). "Statement by the Government of Malta". Government of Malta. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Marshall Islands recognises Venezuela's Juan Guaido". RNZ. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "Montenegro supports the position of European partners on the need for holding free and democratic elections in Venezuela". MVP(Ministry of Foreign Affairs). 6 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Venezuela : Le Maroc apporte son soutien au président autoproclamé Juan Guaido". L'Orient le jour (in French). Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- Blok, Stef (4 February 2019). "The eight-day period to call for free democratic and transparent elections in Venezuela expired today. The Kingdom of the Netherlands recognizes @jguaido as interim-President of Venezuela. We want freedom and democracy to return to Venezuela asap". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Dimitrov, Nikola (4 February 2019). "The Republic of Macedonia, in line with its European partners, supports and considers the President of the Venezuelan Assembly, @jguaido as Interim President, in accordance with the Constitution, in order to organize free, fair and democratic presidential elections". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poland (4 February 2019). "Phone call between FMs #Czaputowicz and Roberto Ampuero Espinoza...The chief of Polish diplomacy told that in view of Nicolas Maduro's failure to call early presidential elections, Poland intended to recognize @jguaido, as..interim president". Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- RepúblicaPortuguesa (4 February 2019). "more Portugal reconhece Juan Guaidó como Presidente interino da Venezuela em declaração do Ministro dos @ nestrangeiro_pt" (in Portuguese). Twitter. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Mihai Roman (8 February 2019). "România îl recunoaște pe Juan Guaidó ca Președinte interimar al Venezuelei – comunicat al Administrației Prezidențiale". G4Media (in Romanian).
- Iohannis, Klaus (8 February 2019). "Romania officially recognized Juan Guaidó as interim president of # Venezuela". twitter. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- "STA: Slovenia recognises Juan Guaido as interim president of Venezuela". english.sta.si. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- Sanchez, Pedro (4 February 2019). "Reconozco como presidente encargado de Venezuela a @jguaido, con un horizonte claro: la convocatoria de elecciones presidenciales libres, democráticas, con garantías y sin exclusiones. No daré ni un paso atrás. Por la libertad, la democracia y la concordia en #Venezuela" (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Wallstroem, Margot (4 February 2019). "Sweden supports and acknowledges Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela, in accordance with the country's constitution, free and fair elections should now be called". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Відповідь Речниці МЗС України Катерини Зеленко для ЗМІ щодо політичної кризи у Венесуелі". Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "MFA: Ukraine backs Venezuelan opposition leader". www.unian.info. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Wall Street Journal: Juan Guaidó recognized as Venezuela's president by major EU countries". Wall Street Journal. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019 – via Kyiv Post.
- Hunt, Jeremy (4 February 2019). "Nicolas Maduro has not called Presidential elections within 8 day limit we have set. So UK alongside European allies now recognises @jguaido as interim constitutional president until credible elections can be held. Let's hope this takes us closer to ending humanitarian crisis". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Kosovo recognises Venezuela opposition leader as president". www.gazetaexpress.com.
- Pacolli, Behgjet (4 February 2019). "We refute the statements of the so-called Ambassador of Venezuela in Belgrade who served the regime of Maduro. Kosovo recognized @jguaido as the legitimate Interim President of #Venezuela and we welcome the increasing number of countries that have taken this stance". twitter. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "EU parliament recognizes Guaido as Venezuelan interim president". Reuters. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- Wyss, Jim (4 January 2019). "Lima Group says it won't recognize Maduro's new term as president of Venezuela". Miami Herald. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Moreno, Luis Alberto (23 January 2019). "El BID manifiesta su voluntad de trabajar con el Presidente Interino de Venezuela, Juan Guaidó, para asegurar la continuidad de nuestro apoyo al desarrollo del pueblo venezolano". Twitter (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "La Internacional Socialista reconoce los esfuerzos de Juan Guaidó y pide elecciones en Venezuela". RPP (in Spanish). 30 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Comité de Acreedores de Venezuela asegura que no negociará con el "régimen actual"". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Monseñor Ovidio Pérez Morales: La Iglesia venezolana declara ilegítimo al régimen comunista y respalda a la AN". La Patilla (in Spanish). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Fedecámaras no puede convalidar un "gobierno cuestionado por su legitimidad de origen"". EC. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Frente Institucional de militares retirados anuncia su apoyo irrestricto a Juan Guaidó (Comunicado)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 13 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Hanke, Jakob; von der Burchard, Hans (24 January 2019). "Brussels caught off-guard by Venezuela's political turmoil". POLITICO. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
In a declaration published late Wednesday, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said the EU ... “fully supports the national assembly as the democratically elected institution whose powers need to be restored and respected.” ... Kocijančič said Mogherini’s statement had been “agreed with all 28 member states" ...
- Trujillo, Carlos (10 January 2019). "Permanent Council Approves Resolution to Not Recognize the Legitimacy of the Maduro Regime". U.S. Mission to the Organization of American States. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Concerned Guyana government urges dialogue as Venezuela's woes worsen". Kaieteur News. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- Editorial staff (12 February 2012). "Italy recognises Venezuela's National Assembly". Momento Italia. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
... foreign minister Enzo Moavero Milanesi told lawmakers on Tuesday. "The Government acknowledges the full legitimacy of (Venezuela's) National Assembly which was elected regularly in conformity with international standards (in 2015)," ... Making no explicit reference to Venezuela's opposition-held National Assembly leader Juan Guaido, Moavera said ... "The government does not recognise the legitimacy of the last presidential polls and consequently Nicolas Maduro's presidency ... This is why the government ... calls for fresh presidential elections which are free, transparent and democratic"
- "Venezuela's Guaido calls for nationwide protests to allow US aid to enter". France 24. 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
Some 30 European countries have already recognized the former industrial engineer as Venezuela's leader, but holdouts include Italy and Greece.
- "Italy: New presidential election needed soon in Venezuela". Washington Post. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
Italy's populist government is calling for elections soon in Venezuela but is stopping short of joining its European Union allies in recognizing opposition leader Juan Guaido as interim president.
- "Venezuela's Guaido expresses 'dismay' at populist Italy's stand". Bloomberg. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
Italy's fractious populist leaders ... calling for new presidential elections but still stopping short of recognizing National Assembly leader Juan Guaido as interim president. ... Unlike other European countries such as Germany, France and UK, the Italian government has not recognized Guaido as interim president. The League of Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini has sided with Guaido, calling for fresh elections, while fellow Deputy Premier Luigi Di Maio of Five Star has refused to recognize Guaido.
- "Gobierno italiano reconoció a Guaidó como presidente". El Tiempo (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
'El diputado de Forza Italia adscrito a la Comisión de Relaciones Exteriores, Guglielmo Picchi, informó este miércoles que el gobierno italiano reconoce a Juan Guaidó como presidente interino de Venezuela.
- "Japón lamenta investidura de Maduro y Honduras también se pronuncia - Efecto Cocuyo". efectococuyo.com.
- Lies, Elaine (4 February 2019). "Japan PM Abe: wants stable, democratic, prompt solution to Venezuela situation". Reuters. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC (Taiwan) [@MOFA_Taiwan] (27 January 2019). "#Taiwan stands with the forces of freedom. We're keeping a close eye on the situation in #Venezuela & are willing & able to provide humanitarian assistance. It's imperative democratic order is restored & the people can enjoy freedom & a swift return to normal life" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 January 2019 – via Twitter.
- "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on latest developments in Venezuela". Council of the European Union. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
The EU fully supports the national assembly as the democratically elected institution whose powers need to be restored and respected.
- "Divided Italy blocks EU statement on recognizing Venezuela's Guaido". Reuters. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Lukashenko calls for peaceful settlement in Venezuela". Belarus Telegraphic Agency. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Lukashenka backs Maduro after hesitation". BelaPAN. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Bolivia's Morales reaffirms backing for Venezuela's Maduro". Reuters. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
Bolivia’s leftist President Evo Morales affirmed his long-standing alliance with President Nicolas Maduro ... 'Our solidarity with the Venezuelan people and our brother Nicolas Maduro, in these decisive hours in which the claws of imperialism seek again to mortally wound the democracy and self-determination of the peoples of South America,' Morales said in the tweet.
- "PM warns against foreign interference". Khmer Times. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- Vasilyeva, Nataliya (24 January 2019). "Venezuela crisis: Familiar geopolitical sides take shape". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
Russia, China, Iran, Syria and Cuba have come down on one side ...
- "Special Meeting of the Permanent Council Thursday January 24, 2019". Organization of American States. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "El Salvador defendió a Maduro ante la OEA". elmundo.sv. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Asamblea de El Salvador desconoce a Maduro y respalda a Guaidó en Venezuela". El Mundo. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "El Salvador expresa su apoyo a Nicolás Maduro". Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Manifesto of Solidarity with United Socialist Party of Venezuela". PDGE Guinea Ecuatorial. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- PM, Tom O'Connor On 1/29/19 at 12:32 (29 January 2019). "China joins Russia in backing Venezuela against U.S. moves, warns of "serious consequences"". Newsweek. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "North Korea throws support behind Venezuela's Maduro regime". UPI. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Hamas, PLO slam 'blatant US interference' in Venezuela affairs". Middle East Monitor. 25 January 2019.
- "Prime Minister attends Venezuelan President Maduro's inauguration". St Kitts & Nevis Observer. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- O'Connor, Tom (11 February 2019). "Russia says U.S. attempts to overthrow Venezuela using its own military are "unheard of"". Newsweek. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "President Cyril Ramaphosa congratulates President of Venezuela on his inauguration | South African Government". Government of South Africa. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Statement by Ambassador Jerry Matjila, Permanent Representative of South Africa to the United Nations during the UN Security Council Meeting on Venezuela, 26 January 2019". Government of South Africa. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Canciller uruguayo asegura que presidencia de Maduro es legítima". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Argentina y Uruguay presionan a Venezuela por elecciones libres y coinciden en la necesidad de la ayuda humanitaria". Infobae (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Los presidentes de Uruguay y Argentina llaman a elecciones libres en Venezuela". El Diario (in Spanish). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Argentina y Uruguay piden elecciones libres y creíbles en Venezuela". El Día (in Spanish). 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Osetia del Sur y Abjasia, los desconocidos "países" invitados a la toma de poder de Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela" [South Ossetia and Abkhazia, the unknown "countries" invited to the inauguration of Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela]. Emol (in Spanish). 10 January 2019.
- "Western Sahara: Sahrawi Delegation Participates in Inauguration of Venezuelan President". AllAfrica. 12 January 2019.
- "Osetia del Sur, el desconocido país sin reconocimiento que apoya a Venezuela" [South Ossetia, the unknown country without recognition that supports Venezuela] (in Spanish). La Nación (Argentina). 10 January 2019.
- "ALADI - Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración".
- "ALBA reitera su apoyo y reconocimiento al presidente Nicolás Maduro". ALBA. 25 January 2019.
- "Solidarity Statement With The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Issued By The SADC Chairperson, His Excellency Dr. Hage G. Geingob, President of the Republic of Namibia". Southern African Development Community. 10 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.